Table 3

Novel approaches to the design of envelope immunogens

Mimic native trimer on virion surface


Redirect immune responses to conserved conformational epitopes


Add disulfides or other amino acids to stabilize conformational epitopes


Bind envelope to CD4 or CD4-mimetic peptide


Remove carbohydrate residue or entire carbohydrate side chains


Redirect responses away from variable epitopes


Remove one or more variable loops

Add carbohydrate side chains to hide

variable regions


Plotkin Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009 12:2   doi:10.1186/1758-2652-12-2

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